Causes of Infertility

Fertility Problems

There are 4 main levels where things go wrong


  • 1. Male factor – Male infertility affects approximately 40% of couples having difficulty conceiving. They include poor quality of semen and erectile dysfunctions (Problems with erection and ejaculation).
  • 2. Ovaries- In female are responsible for producing eggs(ova). Fertilization of egg results in formation of an embryo that develops into a baby. In a normal female every month at least one egg is formed and released by the ovary. There are many conditions in which ovaries fail to produce eggs thus resulting in infertility.
  • 3. Fallopian tubes -Male and female eggs(sperms and ova) are brought together through fallopian tubes. Many conditions like infections, previous surgeries and endometriosis can cause tubal blockade resulting in infertility.
  • 4. Uterine factor- presence of polyps and adhesions in uterine cavity can interfere with implantation of fertilized ovum


Male factor is evaluated by a simple test “semen analysis”. It is an inexpensive test that is easily available in many laboratories around you. It tells us if sperms are present in adequate numbers and also if their form and function is normal. If one test report shows abnormal parameters, it is always advisable to repeat the test. Absence of sperms is called azoospermia. If it is found on two separate occasions, further investigations are performed to differentiate between obstruction and non production. In case of obstruction pregnancy is possible with assisted reproduction techniques, using your own sperm.


Ovaries can be affected by many conditions like polycystic ovarian disease(PCO),endometriosis, resistant ovarian disease and premature ovarian failure.

- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)


Women with PCO tend to be overweight and usually have irregular periods. They can also have acne and hair growth. In these women ovaries are larger than usual and have thick cover. These ovaries produce wrong hormones and fail to release egg every month hence resulting in infertility. PCO can be treated by medicines or by a surgery called ovarian drilling. The most effective way to treat it is by weight reduction.

- Endometriosis
Endometrium is the tissue that lines inner wall of the womb. This is the tissue that bleeds every month and is shed off during menses.
the growth of endometrium in places other than the uterus is called endometriosis.  These growths can develop on the ovaries, fallopian tubes and cervix and can also spread to organs around the belly. This tissue bleeds every month with periods, presence of blood in closed spaces like in ovary results in formation of cysts, it can result in formation of adhesion between gut and other organs in belly with uterus and fallopian tubes Endometriosis affects a females’ fertility by changing the shape and interrupting the function of the ovaries, fallopian tubes or uterus.

- Resistant ovary syndrome
Ovaries donot respond to hormones in the body the way they should. Ovaries don’t form eggs thus resulting in infertility.

- Premature ovarian failure
Ovaries stop working before time. Instead of 50 years woman becomes menopausal at an early age.

The fallopian tube is where union of the egg and sperm occusr. If the tube is blocked, fertilization is prevented. At the end of the tube are “hair like” structures called “fimbriae” which pick up the egg and push it into the tube. If the fimbriae are damaged then they can’t pick up the egg. Endometriosis, pelvic infections, ectopic pregnancies, and fibroids can all cause blockage of the tubes.

Are non-cancerous tumors that grow in or around the uterus and fallopian tubes. Fibroids on the uterus (uterine fibroids) can interfere in the implantation of the embryo. They can cause pressure on fallopian tubes resulting in their blockage.

Ovulation Disorders

In some cases, abnormal hormones such as high prolactin (a hormone that stimulates milk production) can affect the ovulation of an egg. Some medications can also cause ovulation disorders.

Early Menopause
Menopause generally begins to affects a female’s ovarian reserve (quality of ovaries) at the age of 40. Early menopause occurs when the ovarian reserve begins to diminish before 40. Chemotherapy, immune diseases, smoking, radiation can lead to this.

Recurrent Ecurrent Miscarriage

Repeat pregnancy loss - defined clinically as a minimum of three miscarriages occurring consecutively - may occur due to other causes such as hormonal, anatomic, or immunologic causes. The exact reasons haven't been uncovered in 50% of the cases. Still, pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) may play a big role in at least 50% to 60% of women who suffer from recurrent miscarriages.

Repeated IVF Failure:

Some women may have no eggs to retreive, or the retreived egg(s) are of poor quality, or the eggs don't fertilize which means no embryo transfer, or the embryos that are transferred don't implant in the uterus, therefore no pregnancy. We have a multitude of options which have proven very effective in obtaining pregnancies in this difficult group of patients.

Male Factor Infertility:

Different factors affecting the male reproductive system can cause azoospermia (no sperm), making it impossible to conceive. Today, with technologies such as TESA and micro-TESE, we are able to find sperm in men who were told they could never become fathers
If you are one of the many people dealing with infertility, you are not alone. The good news is that with today's latest medical advances, more than 70% of people experiencing infertility can conceive. Some of the most common fertility problems are listed below.